Part Two: What you’re missing by following FIPS competition rules — Leader Restrictions

by | Sep 17, 2020 | 11 comments

** Note ** This is Part Two of a Troutbitten short series about what tight line anglers might be missing by following competition rules. This all reads a lot better if you first back up and read Part One, which introduces the topic and focuses on the rule about attaching nothing to the leader but the flies. Find Part One HERE.

To date, the fly fishing industry has largely turned to the competition world to find its authorities on euro nymphing. Therefore, the wealth of resources available in videos, articles and books is heavily influenced by the inherent bias of anglers who follow FIPS Mouche competition rules (the governing body for international comps). However, the common angler has no need for such restrictions. And following comp rules takes away much of the versatility and efficiency offered by long leader systems in the first place.

Many tight line anglers follow these rules by default, assuming that these are the elements that make a tight line system work. But they are not.

I believe there are two main FIPS rules that hold an angler back from all that is possible with a euro nymphing rig or a tight line system like the Mono Rig. In part one, I addressed the first rule. It dictates that nothing may be attached to the leader other than the flies. Now, let’s get to the second rule. . .

READ: Troutbitten | Category | The Mono Rig

TWO: The Leader Length Restriction

FIPS rules dictate that the length of a leader may be only twice the length of the fly rod. (Article 28)

The implementation of this rule changes many things. It starts a chain reaction of compensations in rigs and tactics that, in some cases, are not the best solutions for the situation on the water.

Photo by Bill Dell

Story of a Comp Line

The leader length restriction was put in place in 2012. Until then, most competition anglers chose long Mono Rigs for nymphing. They employed lengthy butt sections of 20-50 feet that sagged far less than a fly line and provided more sensitivity. Long leaders were standard fare, because honestly, nothing beats a Mono Rig.

So with the new rules in place, leaders were shortened to around 20-22 feet (twice the length of the rod). And that’s a drastic difference in length. Medium to long distance nymphing always suffers with a leader this short, because a standard fly line sags, causing drag as it hangs from the rod tip (it even sags within the guides.)

Fly line limits the performance of a tight line system.

So the industry responded with a work-around for the restrictions on leader length. They developed competition nymphing fly lines (aka: euro lines or comp lines.) These skinny fly lines are an attempt to simulate a Mono Rig and achieve the same performance. Comp lines are very thin, with an 8-12 lb mono or braided core and a slender fly line coating. But the end result is never as thin as a standard Mono Rig of .017”, because FIPS restricts the comp line diameter as well (.022” is the thinnest allowed for a fly line.)

Competition fly lines function a bit like a standard fly line and something like a Mono Rig. They’re a good middle ground. And they’re the only viable option for competitors to stay within the confines of FIPS rules, while still gaining the benefits of tight lining.

So that’s the short story of comp lines. This quick bit of history matters. Because it’s important to understand how we got here. And it helps to know why so many euro nymphing leader formulas are designed the way they are. It’s often because they are built for attaching to a comp line.

READ: Troutbitten | The Mono Rig and Why Fly Line Sucks

The Versatility Loss

If you commit to using a competition fly line, you’re cutting your technique options for the river in half.

With a comp line on your spool, you are limited to the styles that suit such a line, because there’s no quick way to change back to the push and the power of a standard fly line.

Sure, carrying extra spools with different lines seems like a fine idea — until you actually try it a few times. Then you realize that it’s simply impossible to change the spool and string up a new line and leader with any speed. Changing spools always requires a walk to the bank, and it’s a five minute process (more like ten, usually). We all hate wasting time, so we avoid making the switch, and we limit our options.

Incidentally, I believe this is exactly why we now have so many euro nymphing anglers out there who tight line at the exclusion of everything else — because the comp line limits versatility.

By contrast, if we keep a standard fly line on the spool and use a Mono Rig for tight lining, then swapping between dries and nymphs and streamers requires nothing more than a leader change. And with a regular fly line on the spool, we still have that option.

In fact, I consider this functionality a key part of the Mono Rig system. Swapping out to a dry leader is something I do on many trips — often multiple times throughout the day. This is true versatility. And it’s missed by using a comp line, plain and simple.

Sad Sag

Competition fly lines weigh more, so they sag more. And there’s no getting around this reality. With the extra weight, they can have a bit more punch, so they may be easier for some anglers to cast.

Ironically, a 20# butt section of Maxima Chameleon functions more like a fly line than does a comp line. It’s stiffer, so it casts “better,” than a competition line, which is more limp because of its thin core. This is especially true when a tight line rig is cast rather than lobbed.

Regardless, the key tenant of all tight line rigs is to avoid the sag caused by a fly line. Restricting the leader length takes away the advantage of a long butt section. Using a comp line can get you part of the way there, but not all the way.

Photo by Josh Darling

Knots In the Guides

If the leader is 20-22 feet, then the leader-to-fly-line junction is somewhere in the rod guides at most short and medium distances where good fishing happens.

Personally, I’ve always done whatever necessary to avoid knots in the guides. Yes, I can tie clean blood knots in my leaders. And yes, I’ve coated those knots. I’ve also used a needle knot and a super glue splice to get the cleanest leader junction possible. But the knots are still there, and it’s just not as clean. Nothing shoots and slides through the guides like unbroken monofilament. And that’s why I design my Mono Rig with a butt section long enough to reach the furthest distances and a taper short enough to fish close, both without having any knots or transitions in the rod guides.

Two Materials

The fly casting stroke for using mono is slightly different than the stroke necessary for casting fly line. So a shorter leader, restricted to just 20-22 feet forces the angler to adapt that casting stroke for different lengths — sometimes the comp line is in play and sometimes it is not.

I prefer to fish one material. I like one set of properties, flexibility and weight.

But when using a comp line with a twenty foot leader, the casting stroke needed at twenty feet is slightly different than the one needed at thirty. Is that the worst thing ever? Nope. But it’s another disadvantage of a shorter nymphing leader.

I’ll mention here that perhaps the best feature of a comp line is the feeling of having a fly line in your hand (albeit a very thin one.) Some anglers prefer this rather than handling a mono butt section. Granted, feeling comfortable with monofilament in the hands can take a day or two, but a well chosen mono, like Maxima Chameleon, stretched before use and stored on a large arbor reel has its own advantages in the hand, and I prefer it. That leads to the next point.


The Mono Rig butt section in your hand is more sensitive than any fly line. But if you follow FIPS leader length restriction, you’ll spend more time with a competition fly line in your hand rather than monofilament.

I like the extra sensitivity of mono. I get more tactile feedback through the line, and I’m better in touch. Although most of my strike detection is visual, I can feel subtle contact with the nymph or split shot better with mono in my hand.

READ: Troutbitten | Contact Can Be Felt at the Rod Tip

Photo by Bill Dell


There are a few growing trends in euro nymphing lately. And they are the direct result of compensating for the FIPS leader length rule. Following these adjustments makes perfect sense if an angler is competing, but they may be less useful if you are not.

Thinner Leaders

Some anglers choose micro thin leaders, paired with the necessary comp line, to accomplish the same minimal sag at distance that can be achieved with a Mono Rig.

Sag is really just a math problem. When a comp line must be used, a thinner leader adds up to less overall weight. But the tradeoff for that thinner leader is less versatility and fewer casting options.

READ: Troutbitten | It’s Casting, Not Lobbing

Floating the Sighter

Remember, a comp line is heavier, so at long distances, the resulting sag encourages the practice of floating the sighter. Done with precision and purpose, floating the sighter is a marvelous tactic with any leader setup. But keeping line off the water is usually the better principle.

Floating the sighter becomes necessary when sag overpowers the pull of the weight below (fly or shot). This causes drag. And it happens about five feet sooner with a shorter leader and comp line vs a Mono Rig. (That’s a very rough estimate.)

Longer Rods

Lastly, the trend toward extra-long rods has coincided with the leader length restriction. And it makes sense, if your leader must be shorter. Longer rods can hold more line off the water. But at some point, the returns on that rod length may not outweigh the disadvantages for the common angler who values a versatile tool more than a specialized one.

READ: Troutbitten | Use a Versatile and General Fly Rod

Find Your Way

These days, many of the euro nymphing leader formulas passed around, written about or featured in videos are built around the restrictions of FIPS. Since euro nymphing is so closely associated with the comp scene, the experts called upon are often entrenched in the rules. They share their leaders but sometimes fail to communicate the limits they are working under. Likewise, they may not mention what you are missing by following FIPS restrictions.

That’s unfortunate. Because the vast majority of us have no use for FIPS rules. We operate under no restrictions, and we should take full advantage of the tactics available.

Fish hard, friends.

** Subscribe to Troutbitten and follow along **


Enjoy the day.
Domenick Swentosky


Share This Article . . .

Since 2014 and 600 articles deep
Troutbitten is a free resource for all anglers
Your support is greatly appreciated

– Explore These Post Tags –

Domenick Swentosky

Central Pennsylvania

Hi. I’m a father of two young boys, a husband, author, fly fishing guide and a musician. I fish for wild brown trout in the cool limestone waters of Central Pennsylvania year round. This is my home, and I love it. Friends. Family. And the river.

More from this Category

Streamer Fishing Myth vs Truth — Eats and Misses

Streamer Fishing Myth vs Truth — Eats and Misses

Over time, over endless conversation, cases of craft beer and thoughtful theories, we came to understand that our hook sets were rarely at fault. No, we set fast and hard. We were good anglers, with crisp, attentive sets. The high percentage of misses were really the trout’s decision. We summarized it this way: Sometimes a trout misses the fly. Sometimes a trout refuses the fly. And sometimes a trout attempts to stun the fly before eating it . . .

Acquire Your Target Before the Pickup

Acquire Your Target Before the Pickup

Accuracy. It’s an elementary casting principle, but it’s the hardest thing to deliver. Wild trout are unforgiving. So the errant cast that lands ten inches to the right of a shade line passes without interest. As river anglers, our task is a complicated one, because we must be accurate not only with the fly to the target, but also with the tippet. Wherever the leader lands, the fly follows. Accuracy holds a complexity that is not for the faint of heart. But here’s one tip that guarantees immediate improvement right away.

Be the Heron

Be the Heron

We can learn much about wading a river for trout by observing the heron. Take time to watch these compelling predators — these master hunters of the river. Because the lessons of incomparable stealth are unforgettable once you’ve seen them . . .

The Spooky Trout: Find Their Blind Spot

The Spooky Trout: Find Their Blind Spot

Understand that trout can’t turn their heads, and they don’t look behind themselves casually.

And from a fisherman’s perspective, as one who has spent decades accidentally scaring the fish I intended to catch, I assure you that the best way to approach a trout is from behind . . .

Are You Spooking Trout?

Are You Spooking Trout?

All trout continuously adapt to their surroundings — they learn what to expect, and they spook from the unexpected.

So, stealth on the water and understanding what spooks a trout is foundational knowledge in fly fishing. Trout are easily scared. Are you spooking fish?

What do you think?

Be part of the Troutbitten community of ideas.
Be helpful. And be nice.


  1. Very interesting. I euro almost exclusively when River nymphing, but rarely even get my fly line out of the guides with the distances I feel limited to for flip casting. It would be interesting to see what you do for casting mono rigs wit these lengthy leaders

    • I’d also like to see a video or something of Dom casting the mono rig. Sometimes a video speaks a thousand words!

    • Hi Barry,

      I agree. A video would be good. And I’ll get there. Quality videos take time, but Troutbitten videos are in the pipeline. I appreciate your support.

      Until then, all you need to know is in the articles here on Troutbitten. As I’ve written often, good long leader casting should look a hell of a lot like good fly line casting. Crisp stops and good acceleration. I use the LEADER to CAST the flies, like a fly line. I do this rather than using the weight of the FLY so much. So it’s not lobbing as much as casting. That’s what I prefer, because there are so many more presentation options available this way.

      Lots more in the Fly Casting Category on Troutbitten:

      Look for the articles withing that category that also list the category, “Nymphing.” There are many.


  2. Great article!
    I have been using OPST lazar line for about 1 year instead of fly line when spanish nymphing. I feel like when I hook into a large fish stripping in line is so iffy; the line is so thin. I hv experimented with different sizes also and still yield the same results.

    So i recently put on a euro fly line again and I have to say I really quite enjoy it. I’m fishing a straight 25ft 6x leader and can still cast it 35/40ft with heavy beads. I tried the mono rig for a while also but I personally just prefer to fish with 2 rods. I agree with what you say though, it’s really just about thinking outside the box and being willing to adapt with what your individual needs are not the FIPS rules.
    The euro crazy seems very locked in a box. It’s interesting too because I took some lessons in Northern Spain from a Spanish team member and he looked at my American “euro” rig and freaked out…he did not approve lol. Every place has their way, we all need to be open to trying different things to see what fits us best.
    As always, thanks for the knowledge Dom!

    • Right on, Pablo. I like it. You found what works for you by experimenting. Cool.


  3. Not much to disagree with here…

    After Part 1, I left my comfort zone and bought some of the smallest Thingamabobbers after resisting ‘bobber’ fishing for so long– despite the fact that my Mono Rig nymphing really struggles in the wind. Took two seconds to loop the ‘Bobber onto my tippet and started catching fish (and big ones) in places I hadn’t gotten a sniff earlier.

    Variety… it’s the spice of life.

  4. Hi Dom,

    The euro movement has caused many of us to buy longer rod often greater than 10’. A traditional fly line is really difficult to cast on rods like this. Ie the 10’6 cortlands and 10’8 T&T contacts.

    Should I go up or down on fly line sizes? My 5wt go to all purpose rod is great for almost everything but euro nymphing and my 10’8 euro nymphing rod just the opposite.

    Where is the happy medium fips rules be darned? It also costs a lot of money to do all this experimenting.

    Thanks. Dave

    Also bummed my campground on the delaware is about to close for the season. Really has been my sanctuary when not nursing.

    • Hi David,

      Thanks for the question.

      You wrote: “The euro movement has caused many of us to buy longer rod often greater than 10’. A traditional fly line is really difficult to cast on rods like this.”

      But I don’t really agree with that. Can you explain what is difficult about casting dry flies with the euro rods? I find that most cast a dry fly quite well. Are you using a euro line?? If so, then it’s the euro line that does not cast a dry very well, and not the rod. I recommend matching the rod with the proper weight fly regular fly line, and it will do double duty with no problem.

      Sounds like you enjoy having a versatile tool. Me too. I am not a real big fan of specialized rods. I do really like many of the euro nymphing rods, but I choose them in 4 weights usually, sometimes 3 if they are stiff enough. But never 2 or 1. I also don’t like them longer than 10’6″, and I prefer 10. I really wish T&T made the Contact in a ten foot 4 weight. But they are excellent rods, regardless. Here are a few articles about my rod preferences:

      Also, my favorite rods are in the Recommended Gear section in the menu:

      Hope that helps.


  5. Thanks for this series. I love tight line nymphing, but it has driven me nuts that all of the books and videos talk about those blasted FIPS- Mouche regulations that almost nobody watching or reading cares about. I finally broke free of some of the limitations using my own reasoning, but this series has really helped reassure me and gave me a few ideas that will help me improve my nymphing game.


Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Recent Articles

Recent Posts

Pin It on Pinterest