Tips for Better Wading and More Trout

by | Nov 2, 2020 | 14 comments

I grew up playing in the watery ravine, across the road and over the hill from my childhood home. And though I badly wished for trout in that small valley, there were none. But the small stream did hold everything I’d ever need to know about currents in a river. In a small format that matched my size, I learned about wading through moving water. And because I learned this early, I now wade easily in my middle age, and I’m confident that I’ll be wading a river until my time in these valleys is finished.

There are three main things that hold anglers back: casting skill, physical fitness and wading ability. In some ways, all three of these are intertwined. The best casts are enabled by placing yourself in excellent positions. And confident wading only happens if you’re in good enough shape to stand up to the current.

Wading is a skill. It’s not just brute strength and artful balance. It’s a combination of preparation, reading the water and thoughtful positioning. (All of this is covered in the article below.)

Case in point: One of the best anglers I’ve ever seen is also the oldest gentleman I’ve ever guided. At eighty-seven, Joe glided through the river. He was slower than most, but more stable. He waded what he could handle and left the rest. With excellent discipline, Joe mostly tight lined nymphs at short range, wading and moving through pockets and chutes. He often ended up in water where you’d never expect to see a man of eighty-plus years standing. I’ve guided twenty-something college athletes that couldn’t wade in such places. But because Joe employed all the elements of a good wader, he excelled. I watched him be comfortable and have fun all day long.

Importantly, Joe might have moved slowly, but he also kept moving.

Importantly, Joe might move slowly, but he also keeps moving.

Let’s address that real quick . . .

River and the Trout

You Gotta Move

The kind of wading we’re talking about is not just walking from place to place. No. Good fly fishing requires great footwork along the way.

I meet a lot of anglers who approach moving water all wrong. They wade into a spot, set up, and then cast to every piece of water they can reach (at all angles) before picking up and wading again to repeat the process.

This is rarely the best approach.

Consider the variables: There’s a distance at which you are most accurate. There’s a light angle that is most advantageous. There’s a certain water type where trout are feeding more agreeably. So the best river anglers move, almost constantly, setting themselves up to best approach the next great piece of water.

As wading anglers, we must wade efficiently. It’s that simple. Casting over a pod of consistently rising trout is the exception to the rule. And if that’s your game, then ignore my advice. But in most situations, being constantly mobile is the better approach.

READ: Troutbitten | Be a Mobile Angler

And I do mean constantly moving. Remember Joe. If you watch this eighty-seven-year-old man fish, his feet are rarely static. Joe glides, he shuffles, he nudges over twelve inches into the neighboring seam to set up his next cast. And in the course of ten minutes, he might finish an entire run. He’s probably picked up a few fish along the way. He didn’t extend his range beyond the distance necessary. And he didn’t beat up one spot. Instead, Joe’s motion puts him constantly over fresh fish, and he always casts at the best angles. Joe is the man.

Reading the Water

I took my youngest son, Aiden, to our home stream this evening, and I watched him mistakenly pick out the worst place to cross the creek. Before he waded in too deep, I stopped him about half way across. I pointed out the deep end of the gravel bar he was on, and showed him that he could navigate much easier just fifty feet upstream.

Don’t wade straight to your spot. Yes, the shortest distance between two points is a straight line. But while wading, a straight line is not your goal. If you plan to fish all day, then power wading through the heavy stuff for long hours at a time is unwise. At any age, we must know our limits and set our pace.

River and Aiden

So look for the breaks, for the edges, for water that’s calf-deep instead of thigh-deep. Find the minor ledges and wade above deep water rather than wading through it. Stay on the bank or the exposed rocks more often.

Try pausing for a moment and observing the river to fish ahead. See where you want to end up. And look for the easiest wading lines that also put you within effective range of your targets. Then follow through with a plan.


If this concept of constant motion is new to you, then it will take sincere effort to break the old habits of locking your feet to the riverbed for great lengths of time. Fishing habits are harder than most to break. So be ready to constantly remind yourself to move. Don’t reach for a better spot — put your feet there.

Along the way through that planned path, the subtle ways you turn your body make a big difference in the energy used or conserved.

The guiding principle is to make yourself skinny. Allow the currents to push against you as little as possible.

I’m an upstream angler. And I constantly recommend facing the currents so we fish upstream and not across. That means my body takes on more currents than if I faced sideways to the seams. But I also shift my stance subtly to cut through the waves. I keep my legs separated for a wider base, so the river slices around two thin legs rather than pushing against one wide pair of legs. Likewise, if the water is up to my waist, and if it’s heavy, a slight turn against the current makes all the difference.

These are things we can feel as much as plan for. Simply take notice of how the currents push against your body, and try to work with them rather than fight against them.

Wading not Walking

I wrote a full article on this topic, and I’ll only summarize it here. Walking is putting one foot in front of the other. Wading is planting your feet solid. Pick up one foot and find the next place for it on the riverbed. Shuffle it into place. Make sure it’s solid. Then, and only then, pick up the other foot and repeat the process.

Good wading can look like walking, if the footing is fairly predictable, but wading is always a different thing. Stay solid.

READ: Troutbitten | It’s Wading, Not Walking


Preparation and Gear

I see a lot of gear mistakes that cause low confidence while wading. And all of them are easily solved with a little forethought and a few dollars spent. I’ll argue, over and over, that good traction and the ability to wade efficiently is far more important than the rod you carry.

Polarized Lenses

This one is often overlooked.

It doesn’t matter if you spend two-hundred dollars or twenty dollars (but yes, the expensive ones are a little better). Just wear polarized sunglasses for fishing — always.

It’s not about whether the sun is out or not. It’s about cutting the glare on the water from even a cloudy sky. This allows us to see into the river and read the bottom structure so we can — ding, ding, ding — wade better.


I wrote an article a while back, titled, Fly fishing Gear: What to Spend on and What to Skimp on. Wading boots are at the top of my list.

Flimsy boots are for the casual angler. And if you’re reading Troutbitten, you’re probably not all that casual about your fishing. Many riverbeds are made of rougher stuff than your most challenging hiking trails. So we need boots that are up to the task. Good wading boots, made to last, have a stiff midsole and excellent foot support. In short, the sole doesn’t roll or give when walking over the rocky stuff. And that’s a good thing.

Troutbitten | Page | Recommended Gear

Boot Studs

The perfect partner for your boots is a set of studs. Good traction is the most important thing out there, and it’s the cornerstone of efficient wading. So take the time to learn which studs work in your waters and which ones don’t.

Tungsten carbide tips, like Grip Studs, are great in many rivers. But they are not good on granite, where aluminum is a better choice. What is the substrate for the rivers you fish?

My favorite traction options are Grip Studs, Rock Treads, and Orvis PosiGrip studs. Take the time to install these. The right studs can make you feel like Spiderman. And I bet he’s a damn good river angler.

Wading Staff

This last one might be the most important. I once thought that a wading staff would slow me down. I thought it was for old guys. But I was wrong about that. The right wading staff, carried and used well, makes all the difference. You’ll wade faster and better than ever before.

READ: Troutbitten | What About the Wading Staff — Thoughts on Choosing and Carrying a Wading Stick

I see so many anglers out there with a staff that drags behind them. They keep it on a leash tethered to their belt. When they are done with the staff, they drop it, and the staff lays . . . somewhere in the water. When it’s needed again, they fumble for the staff, looking back, pulling it in by the tether and generally looking like they haven’t spent much time thinking all this through.

I have no use for a staff unless it’s always in the same place — at my left hip, with no slack, ready for use. I rig my staff on a retractor, so I know exactly where it is. Without looking, I can have it in my non-rod hand (that’s important) in an instant. It doesn’t drag. It’s light enough that it feels like nothing is there, and it’s collapsible for a long walk on the road out. As open-minded as I am about fishing gear and tactics, I can’t understand doing this any other way.

A good wading staff completes the simple gear necessary for anyone to wade with confidence.

Anyone | Anywhere

If the following description sounds like you, then this might sting a bit, but I’m writing it anyway. Consider it tough love.

I guide a hundred days a year, and I’ve heard many reasons for poor wading skills: old age, loss of balance, bad knees, back trouble, etc. All of these are absolutely legitimate difficulties to overcome. But they should not be used as an excuse. If you’ve been attentive to everything on the list above, only then can you fairly blame poor wading skills on your health issues.

More often, inexperience is the primary culprit. Second is a simple lack of preparation. The only way to solve the first trouble is to fish more and make a plan to wade the river with some bravery. Solving the second trouble is much easier. Prepare yourself with the right gear for effective wading. Don’t accept poor traction any longer. Rig your staff so it’s at the ready immediately. Choose solid boots, new studs and a pair of polarized lenses.

READ: Troutbitten | All the Things

When I hear the laments of old age or health problems, I always, without fail, think of Joe. On the day I met him, he told me he’d had both knees replaced about a decade earlier. He said that’s when he’d learned to better read the water and wade with a strategy.

Bottom line: your wading will improve drastically if you do the things to make it happen. And more fish will follow. That’s a guarantee.

READ: Troutbitten | How to stay in the fly fishing game for a lifetime

Fish hard, friends.


Enjoy the day.
Domenick Swentosky


Share This Article . . .

Since 2014 and 1000+ articles deep
Troutbitten is a free resource for all anglers.
Your support is greatly appreciated.

– Explore These Post Tags –

Domenick Swentosky

Central Pennsylvania

Hi. I’m a father of two young boys, a husband, author, fly fishing guide and a musician. I fish for wild brown trout in the cool limestone waters of Central Pennsylvania year round. This is my home, and I love it. Friends. Family. And the river.

More from this Category

DIY — Put Your Wet Boots Here

DIY — Put Your Wet Boots Here

When my wading boots dry out I know it’s been too long since I’ve fished. Thankfully, they’re usually wet, so I like to have a good place to store them. Here’s an effective way to transport wet wading boots without draining creek water where you don’t want it.

I use a drawer from a plastic storage bin that I bought for $12 at Wal Mart a decade ago. That’s a small price to pay to keep my wife happy (enough) when I turn family visits into fishing trips by bringing fishing gear along.  She doesn’t want creek juice leaking onto the carpets of the van.  Yes, we have a mini van. No, I won’t try to defend it.  Let’s move on . . .

When fishing for stockies, it may not pay to be ambitious

When fishing for stockies, it may not pay to be ambitious

Brandon barely cut the engine before I jumped out of the truck and into my waders, I strung up lines and laces in no time.

“I’m gonna head upstream past the second flat, into that woodsy section away from the road. When I pick off a few fish up there, I might circle back around to the lower end,” I said to Brandon.

“K. Those are big plans.” he replied flatly.

Brandon spoke again, while staring at the water. “Dom, when fishing for stockies, sometimes it does not pay to be ambitious . . .”

Three Parts of an Ideal Indicator Leader — And One Great Formula

Three Parts of an Ideal Indicator Leader — And One Great Formula

Indicators are often added to our leader as an afterthought — which leads to another compromise. We’re left with a tool that is not well suited for the job. It works, but it could be better.

So for many years I’ve carried a third leader dedicated to indicator nymphing. And built into the leader are three features which are specifically up to the task of floating nymphs under an indy . . .

Fifty Fly Fishing Tips: #38 — The Fly Line and Leader Need a Target

Fifty Fly Fishing Tips: #38 — The Fly Line and Leader Need a Target

Look at the water. Your target is two feet on this side of a current seam that’s drawn downstream from the tip of a gravel bar. Three trout are steadily rising within casting distance, lined up and distributed in the riffly, bubbly seam. Golden noses poke through the surface and slurp Blue Winged Olive duns without reservation, with early-season, confident rises and none of the skittish hesitation that you’ll see in a month or two. It’s as if a long winter erased the trout’s memory of all present dangers — of anglers and shadowy herons.

Yes, these trout should be (almost) easy. Your leader is well designed, tapered to a long soft piece of 5X nylon. Your position is downstream. Behind the trout’s vision and just off to the side, you stand in ankle deep water on the soft, inside part of the seam. You mentally process the targets and plan to pick off the most rearward riser because he’s closest to your position. And with luck, you’ll hook him on the first few casts. You’ll set the hook and use his upward momentum to pull him sideways and downstream, away from the top two risers. The other trout will be undisturbed — hopefully.

Fifty Fly Fishing Tips: #37 — Zoom in and think smaller

Fifty Fly Fishing Tips: #37 — Zoom in and think smaller

The more time we spend on the water, the better we fish. No news there, right? But why is that? If I don’t fish for a week, it’s not like I’ve lost the skills to get a good drift, nor have I lost lost the ability to read trout water. Shouldn’t it be like riding a bike?

Fishing skills certainly can grow some rust, but after a couple of hours on the river, everything about your game ought to mold back into shape (assuming your layoff wasn’t months long). Because once we’ve learned something in fishing, it stays with us — thankfully though, there’s unlimited potential for refinement.

So still I ask, why? Why do we fish better when we’re out there multiple times each week?

Fly Fishing Strategies: Sighters — Seven Separate Tools

Fly Fishing Strategies: Sighters — Seven Separate Tools

Sighters are game changers. A visible sighter allows you to stop guessing where your fly might be and know where it is instead. By having a visual reference at a fixed point on your leader, you can track the movements of that leader, in relation to the currents, and have a very good idea of what your flies are doing under the water — or on the surface.

Not only do I build a sighter into my nymph and streamer leaders, I also add small, subtle sighters into my dry fly leaders. As my friend, Jimmi Ray, says, “Why wouldn’t you?” Sighters, however, are a staple in tight line and euro nymphing leaders, and in the Mono Rig.

I absolutely believe in the effectiveness of long mono leaders for nearly every underwater presentation to river trout, but here’s one major drawback: without the fly line, there’s nothing to look at. A sighter gives that visual back, better than ever.

What do you think?

Be part of the Troutbitten community of ideas.
Be helpful. And be nice.


  1. Hmmm, not wading in on the felt vs rubber debate ? My vote is for felt. As usual, good stuff here, especially the need for a wading staff. It can make a huge difference in safety AND fish caught.

    • Hi Jeff. Oh I don’t mind weighing in on it. But that’s a topic different from this article. It needs its owns discussion. Not sure there’s even a debate, though. Neither is great all the time. Felt is excellent on many surfaces, but it wears poorly and needs to be cleaned to keep its effectiveness. Rubber lasts longer but has poor traction on many substrates. But felt in the winter is very bad — you build up snow stilts.


    • I was actually going to do a segment on wading,I’m usually in water average of 5 hours a day,and sometimes it’s almost a divine intervention I haven’t gone in!! My secret is definitely going slow,many times if just a little faster that trip would of been a soaking!!

  2. felt year round with carbide spikes, wading staff is critical, my area has mostly pocket water in the moving sections so you are wading on all size boulders all the time, that in it self is tiring whether you are (71 – me) or 21.

  3. Excellent article with lots of good nuggets. I just came back from a trip to the Salmon River where wading is very tricky even with studded boots and a wading stick. The one thing I disagree with is keeping polarized lenses on all or even most of the time. I use amber flip ups with my glasses because there are many times I actually see better with just my clear lenses, especially in low light conditions. When there is sun on water and a lot of glare that’s the time I flip my polarized lenses down to see better. Cost of a pair of amber flips is about $20.

  4. Forgot my wading staff the last time I hit the river – turned a would-be easy day into a day-long workout which included a slight dunking – don’t leave home without it.

  5. I have found the staff very important even in the low slow waters that we have faced this fall. I have been surprised that I was the only one using one. Must be my aging mentality! Great article, thank you.

  6. Once again (just like the Orvis knot….) everything Dom mentions rings true and deserves consideration. After spending a very enjoyable day with him on Spring Creek another facet of wading jumped to my attention. Have a plan. And not just to position and fish the best looking water but for the entire run. Dom took time to explain the how and why we were going to deliberately “attack” each part of a run and pool and the results were evident in the number of fish hooked and landed.

    I’ve always been an advocate of fishing, not neglecting, the close water but Domenick’s approach was more like chess to my checkers.

    I guess it is time to get a retractor for my wading staff. Thanks again, Dom.

  7. Awesome piece. Really enjoyed it.
    Makes me think of Kelly Galloup who said something like, “Stalk more, cast less.”
    Following your advice will make it way easier for us to do that.

  8. Great post, Dom.

    I’ve tried pretty much every boot stud out there and my favorite so far is the RockGrabrz studs:
    They work on granite, cut through slime and even bubble weed in the salt. Spendy, yes, but so is a bad fall.

    A wading staff also makes for more secure walking over slippery tree roots and such.

  9. I have learned a lot about wading and positioning myself for the best presentation by fishing a lot with tenkara rods over the last few years. Your casting range is limited by design, so you will be forced to move. It’s made me a better all around fly angler because I no longer try to solve every fishing “problem” with a longer cast.

  10. Another reason to “keep moving” but from an entirely different angle:

    I (unfortunately) have to fish stillwaters much more often than not, as there are few to no decent trout-bearing streams/rivers within reasonable striking distance.

    My main “pond” is in an extremely low water situation right now, and wading in from the edge of the water means some pretty deep muck to stand in. The other day I had been standing in place perhaps a bit too long. When I shifted my position a bit I found myself a bit off balance, and…………………my feet were solidly stuck! Yes, I fell over. And yes, it was quite an inelegant bit of thrashing about before I could become unstuck. Had anyone been around with a camera/phone, you would surely be watching it on a Fail YouTube video and laughing hysterically. Not very dignified for sure.

    Keep moving (in whatever water you are in).


  11. Dom… what a great piece of writing. Every beginning fly angler should read this. Your tips are well stated and clearly based on experience. Even us old dudes can benefit from the reminders in your article. I would love to watch Joe fish, he probably makes a heron look clumsy.

  12. The tip on constantly shuffling along is a great one. I cover the same amount of water but create far less wave action while maintaining better balance. Don’t walk, do the “brook trout shuffle” .


Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Recent Articles

Recent Posts

Domenick Swentosky

Central Pennsylvania

Hi. I’m a father of two young boys, a husband, author, fly fishing guide and a musician. I fish for wild brown trout in the cool limestone waters of Central Pennsylvania year round. This is my home, and I love it. Friends. Family. And the river.

Pin It on Pinterest