Six Ways To Get Your Fly Deeper

by | Mar 3, 2019 | 20 comments

Get to the bottom. Keep the fly in the strike zone. Get down to the fish. Anglers have a bunch of different ways to say the same thing — put the flies near the riverbed and keep them there.

When fishing under the surface for trout, my target is near the bottom — most of the time. The majority of success with nymphs happens while aiming for the lowest part of the water column. And when trout are eating nymphs higher up, I often target those fish by adding a tag fly further up the tippet while still keeping my point fly deep. Even with streamers, I often keep my lead fly low in the zone, bouncing and twitching along like an injured baitfish.

So getting down is the ever-present objective. It’s what good fly anglers think about — a lot. But is it as simple as adding split shot or swapping out to a heavier tungsten beaded fly? No. Not at all.

There are six ways to get the fly deeper. Understanding each one of them, and more importantly, seeing how each of them interacts with or affects the others, is a major key to gaining a complete picture of your underwater fishing system.

Here are the six elements: weight, depth adjustment, material resistance, drift length, tuck cast and current seams.

Now let’s do it . . .

Let em go


This is the obvious one. When most anglers want to go deeper, they reach into their vest for more lead, tungsten, etc. That’ll do the job. Add enough weight, and you’ll get to the bottom of the ocean floor, if you like.

But extra weight comes with a consequence. And keeping the rig as light as possible is arguably the best way to achieve a natural and attractive drift. Added weight borrows too much from a fly’s natural movement (usually). Real nymphs and baitfish don’t have tungsten cones lashed to their heads. They don’t weigh much at all, of course, and they have a kind of neutral buoyancy in the water. In short, a heavy fly paired with lead or tungsten might not act much like the real thing.

Of course, it’s our job to fix that. So we counteract the artificial effect of weight with the other elements in our rig: the tippet, leader and rod. With our arms and hands we’re in control of it all. We use the weight to our advantage. It’s a tool in a system.

READ: Troutbitten | Stop the Split Shot Slide

Adding weight is obvious. And it’s critical for getting low enough to catch a bunch of trout. But weight is only part of our puzzle.

Depth Adjustment

Picture this: A nymphing angler watches a yellow indicator glide down the surface for thirty-five feet. Starting with a cast up and across the river, the flies and indy land in alignment — in one seam. That’s good. But in those thirty-five feet, as the rig crosses the angler’s position and finishes the drift down and across, the indy never slows down. Our angler understand that the flies didn’t reach deep enough. They never got down to the riverbed. So he pulls in his line and adjusts the depth of the indy by sliding it further up the leader.

That . . . is easy depth adjustment.

The tight line nymphing angler manages depth in a similar way. By watching the sighter, she may control the angle of the line both above and below the water. And she may control the depth of the flies.

With streamers and wet flies, the concept is the same. By simply permitting more line under the surface, the flies may sink deeper. Think about that one, and realize how often it applies.

READ: Troutbitten | Depth, Angle, Drop — Three elements of a nymphing rig

Fish Hard

Material Resistance

Everything we put under the water takes on drag. The currents push all of it. And the bigger something is, the more it gets pushed around.

We tend to think of these as slight discrepancies. Is there really that much difference between how much drag 4X tippet incurs vs 6X? Yes! There is. And when attached to a #16 nymph, that difference is significant. Thicker leader material drags more than thinner leader material, simply because there’s more for the current to push around.

Likewise, the material and the shape of the fly matters. Does a Hare’s Ear sink slower than a Pheasant Tail? Yes. Does a Sucker Spawn sink slower than a Higa’s SOS? Absolutely. Furthermore, a #16 Perdigon from my fly box sinks as fast as a #14 Beadhead Pheasant Tail, even though the BHPT weighs more. The material resistance of those tiny barbules on the pheasant tail is enough to slow its descent more than a fully streamlined fly like a Perdigon. And the lighter and more refined your rig is, the more you can feel that difference, first hand.

“In time, all things in a river sink to the bottom. How much time do you have?”

You can easily experience this effect while fishing streamers too. Strip a Bunny Bullet Sculpin off the bank and across the currents, and feel the resistance of the deer hair head. Now tie on a Full Pint Streamer. Even though the Pint is larger, it cuts through the water easier, with less resistance because the head profile is more tapered.

None of this has anything to do with what flies are better. The materials of a fly and how much resistance it sustains in the water are simply factors to be considered, all while understanding the other things that get a fly deeper too.

Photo by Bill Dell

Drift Length

Given enough drift time, all rigs get to the bottom, if your depth is set deep enough. It might take fifty feet or more, but in time, the weight of the flies or shot may achieve something close to vertical, and they’ll eventually reach the bottom of the river if allowed to drift.

That’s why fishing a river from a boat is so different than wading. With the boat drifting at the same relative speed as the flies, those flies can continue to drop for a very long time without coming under the dragging effect of a downstream swing.

But the wading anger must decide how long the drift will be. Is it an upstream tight line drift that ends when the flies are across from our position? (Pick up sharply and recast.) Or is it a long drift under an indy, across a span too deep to wade, where the indicator guides the flies along a thirty foot course before reaching the limit of the angler’s control?

In time, all things in a river sink to the bottom. How much time do you have?

Tuck Cast

In almost every nymphing situation, the fly should enter the water first. It’s just a matter of how hard it hits and with how much slack?

Anglers with full command over a tuck cast have tremendous control over depth. By abruptly stopping the forward cast but keeping the rod tip up, the weighted flies or split shot reach the end of the unfolding loop of leader and have nowhere else to go but down. Momentum continues, and the flies enter the water. A deep tuck cast, performed with strong force, sends the flies to the bottom of the river much quicker than a shallow tuck cast, where the angler softens the strength and force applied at the stopping of the rod. It’s up to the angler to decide how much force is needed in the tuck.

Not only does a good tuck cast force the flies down, it provides some slack, so the flies can drop without tension.

There is a formula for getting flies to the bottom. And in this equation of elements, the tuck cast is just as important as the weight.

READ: Troutbitten | Free Fall and the Drift

READ: Troutbitten | Fly Fishing Strategies — The Tuck Cast

Current Seams

What if we get the weight right? What if we set the depth, factor in the distance, we have a good tuck cast and we’ve balance all of it together with the material resistance of the tippet and the flies themselves? What if we set everything up just right? What then is the X-factor?

It’s the path of the fly across current seams.

The number one thing I tell my guests while nymphing is to keep the flies in one current seam. It’s the primary principle of a dead drift. Drag is such an easy concept to see and understand with dry flies on the surface, but it’s much more difficult when we can’t see the flies in the mixed and multiple currents underneath. And yet, the best dead drifts are a result of just that — understanding the fly’s position and keeping it in one seam.

Our flies also get deeper when they are kept in just one current seam.

READ: Troutbitten | One Great Nymphing Trick

The attached line is really the source of the trouble. If the tippet is in a secondary seam, slower than the fly, it pulls that fly over toward it. The tippet and the fly fight against each other. But if the tippet and fly are in the same even flow, the fly sinks and gains depth with much less weight required.

And this is not just a nymphing concept. Good streamer anglers also recognize the effect that multiple seams have on their fly. And by crossing current seams, the streamer doesn’t sink as easily.

One of my favorite streamers tactics takes advantage of this idea. I like to cast up and across to the bank, then strip my streamer out of the soft seam and into the faster water. Maybe I strip it ten feet off the bank, across multiple seams before the streamer finds a slower stall, just five feet behind a rock. I then stop the progress of the streamer across stream and allow it to ride downstream in just one current seam for some time. Inevitably, the streamer sinks faster while not crossing currents. After a short ride in that one seam, and perhaps just as the streamer touches the bottom, I activate the streamer with a twitch and pause, then continue to strip it back to me, across the seams. It’s a deadly look.

READ: Troutbitten | Category | Streamers

At the Bottom of Everything

Each one of these elements works with the others to get deeper and to get there more naturally. It’s not enough to add some weight, just like it’s not enough to switch from 3X to 4X, or to slide the indy up the line or drop the sighter. All of it matters. And everything interacts with all the other things beside it.

We must plunge, we must plunge, we must plunge
And then we’ll get down there
Way down to the very bottom of everything
And then we’ll see it, we’ll see it, we’ll see it . . .

— Conor Oberst | At the Bottom of Everything | I’m Wide Awake, It’s Morning

Fish hard friends.

Enjoy the day.
Domenick Swentosky


Share This Article . . .

Since 2014 and 700+ articles deep
Troutbitten is a free resource for all anglers.
Your support is greatly appreciated.

– Explore These Post Tags –

Domenick Swentosky

Central Pennsylvania

Hi. I’m a father of two young boys, a husband, author, fly fishing guide and a musician. I fish for wild brown trout in the cool limestone waters of Central Pennsylvania year round. This is my home, and I love it. Friends. Family. And the river.

More from this Category

Podcasts Begin — Episode 1: This Is Troutbitten

Podcasts Begin — Episode 1: This Is Troutbitten

In this inaugural Troutbitten podcast, my friends Bill, Austin, Trevor and Josh join me to discuss how fly fishing for wild trout creates a life on the water.

We consider what it means to fish hard, how hope is the strongest trait of a successful angler, why everything works sometimes, and how fly fishers, all too often, are a little much.

We also talk about the tenets of Troutbitten, or the shared interests and characteristics about fly fishing that bring us together and keep us excited about trout fishing for a lifetime . . .

Night Fishing for Trout –The Wiggle and Hang

Night Fishing for Trout –The Wiggle and Hang

Lifting the rod slightly, I shake the rod tip left and right. Easy, rhythmically, I wiggle the tip and feel the line wave as I see it dance and glow in the dark. The fly shimmies and sends a pattern of waves through the surface and beyond, calling to any trout within who-knows-how-far.

#7. Guiding the Flies: Nine Essential Skills for Tight Line and Euro Nymphing

#7. Guiding the Flies: Nine Essential Skills for Tight Line and Euro Nymphing

We overweight to lead the flies, and we underweight to track them. But to guide the flies, we must find the middle ground, with enough weight to control the flies against the effects of the current but not so much that the flies cannot be permitted to drift at the will of that same current.

This may sound like a bit of hocus pocus. But in truth, it’s an intuitive process that becomes natural with trial and error . . .

Night Fishing for Trout — The Bank Flash

Night Fishing for Trout — The Bank Flash

I returned to a tactic that I’d employed on many dark nights where I couldn’t effectively reference the bank. I reached up to my headlamp and flicked on the light for an instant — a half second and no more — before returning back to the black. Then, just like the quick shots of lightning earlier, the lamp showed me the way. The image of the riverbank burned into my brain. Something inside of me calculated the adjustments and converted the images into accuracy with my tools of fly rod, line, leader and fly. It was a little bit of magic . . .

What do you think?

Be part of the Troutbitten community of ideas.
Be helpful. And be nice.


  1. Another great article. Thank you, Dom.

  2. I am spending more time thinking about these things on the river thanks to blogs/articles like yours and becoming a better, more observant fisherman for it. Thank you.

  3. How do you deal with wind when it affects your drift or getting flies down? Additional weight can reduce wind sag but can increase hang ups to where I’m leading to much in the drift and it is no longer natural however with the wind pulling or pushing the rig with less weight it’s the same issue, plus the loss of contact. If you get what I mean? What would be your approach in these situations.

  4. Cracked, weathered & long in the tooth Powerflex spool looks familiar. #priorities

    • Ha. That’s right, man.

  5. “I’m happy just because….I found out that I am really Noone” –

  6. Great article I’m sure I’ll return to often. As a novice at nymphing and proper weights I’m always puzzled at what I’m doing wrong to get my flies down. Today I had a prince nymph followed by a sucker spawn at the bottom in a tandem rig. With moving but not rapid water my prince was sinking pretty good but the sucker spawn was flying a little too high in the stream. Adding weight between the flies seemed to solve it but I think that’s usually not done. Should I have shorted the distance between my two flies?

  7. Nice…as always!
    Is the lead photo recent Dom? What’s the leader?

    • Thanks Justin,

      Yes, very recent. The leader is a Mono Rig with Maxima Hi-Vis as a butt section. Been testing it for a while. Performance almost identical to Chameleon, but more visible.

      • Thought I spied something different. I didn’t know they did a Maxima hi-vis!
        If I built my mono rigs from nylon I’d be trying to get shares in Maxima. I’ll still probably get some to experiment with.
        I’ve been playing with impregnated braids for a while. (Or micro furl leaders if you want to sell it to the unconverted)
        Like most things convergent evolution is at play and I’ve seen others doing similar, – for on-water leaders though rather than the mostly tightline held-off water I’m interested in.
        But does that mean they’re not mono rigs??? 🙂

          • I’m using both PE-fibre braids and Arimid braids depending on what I want to achieve. The Arimid leaders are denser than fluro so have better casting properties (dry fly, dry-dropper, single wet) but on the flip side sink.
            Right now the hybrid leaders, using Arimid for the butt section and a PE fibre towards the tippet end, look to like the direction I’ll go for trout fishing. No magic bullet that’s for sure but some definite advantages
            as well as some hurdles.
            I’m also trying out a braid (PE fibre) as a direct replacement for 20lbs chameleon, rigged as you fish the mono rig for situations when the tensile strength of my comp nymph line isn’t enough.

          • Cool. Yeah, I couldn’t use a butts section that sinks.

            What’s the flexibility / stiffness of the PE-fibre braids like? I’ve never found a braid that isn’t too limp. The point of a braid, in the first place, is to have more flexibility and strength in diameters that compare to monofilament. But I do not want much flexibility because it takes away from the fly line style performance.

          • Yeah I’d say none of the braids have the required stiffness I’m after untreated (I want any treatment to both add stiffness and increase density without increasing diameter). I’ve tried impregnating them with various concoctions but the very first I tried was pretty good and properly old school. A similar linseed oil preparation as used historically for some silk fly lines. The leaders had a tendency to kink too much though in the smaller diameters braids and each leader was taking 8 weeks to make with the drying times. The method at the end of this video is the same –

            It started as a curiosity experiment but I think it might be the way I go.

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Recent Articles

Recent Posts

Domenick Swentosky

Central Pennsylvania

Hi. I’m a father of two young boys, a husband, author, fly fishing guide and a musician. I fish for wild brown trout in the cool limestone waters of Central Pennsylvania year round. This is my home, and I love it. Friends. Family. And the river.

Pin It on Pinterest