Fly Fishers — How to Wet Wade (the Gear and the System)

by | Jul 4, 2018 | 30 comments


** Note **  Links for wet wading gear are in the second half of this article


Did you know that breathable waders breath most effectively underwater? Fun fact, right? The permeable membranes pass water vapor best when there’s a significant temperature difference between the inside and the outside of the wader (hot and sweaty inside and colder outside). It’s not such a big deal when you aren’t producing much water vapor (evaporating sweat), but it’s a messy, clammy situation when the mercury climbs. The only place for much vapor transfer to happen on hot days is under water. So, hiking the banks at eighty-five degrees in waders can be pretty miserable. Amiright?

As modern life becomes more automated, more air conditioned and less labor intensive, it seems that our general tolerance for being uncomfortable has suffered. So baking yourself crispy in a plastic suit with suspenders is pretty much out. Fair enough, but there’s no need to hang up the fly rod for the summer, either.

What to do, then? Wet wade

For many years my summer fishing took me to mountain brook trout streams, exploring narrow canyons nestled into the State Forests of Pennsylvania. The water was low and clear, and accurate casting was at a premium. I covered miles of water in a day, the trout were skittish and small, and the experience of exploration was unmatched. It was also hot as hell.

It didn’t take long before I realized that waders were the wrong choice for this type of summer trout fishing. I dug out my rubber hip boots from another life, but the poor traction and foot support were not up to the required hiking. I then went to a pair of standard hiking boots and jeans. Meh. It was better but still lacking. And I’m not one to settle when things aren’t quite right.

So after a few more seasons of trying the wrong things, I finally figured out what many anglers already knew — wet wading is a joy when done right.

What is right? Who’s to say? But I’ll happily share with you a few key elements to a good wet wading system that works for me.

Wet wading makes even the hottest days comfortable. With the lower half of your body acting as an air conditioner for the upper half while it absorbs the sun, everything balances out. Just yesterday, I fished in ninety-five degrees all afternoon. But, up to my thighs in cold water, I didn’t break a sweat.

Careful, there  . . .

In many rivers, summer trout fishing isn’t good. If the water is too warm, the trout are off the feed. And it is, in fact, unhealthy for a trout to be dragged around in warmish water with a hook in its mouth.

Sixty-nine degrees is my cutoff. You might have your own opinions about all that — your own number where you won’t fish for trout — and that’s cool. Regardless, trout hooked in water anywhere north of sixty-five degrees Fahrenheit should probably be played fast and returned to the water even faster.

READ: Troutbitten: PSA — It’s Hot Out There

Lucky Net. I kept this one going for six years before switching to the Fishpond.


On many western streams, summer is the peak of trout season, with runoff finally passed and the hatches in full swing. But in the east, our major hatches are over, and the fishing gets a lot more challenging with lower water and a higher, hotter sun — usually.

Point is, there are plenty of places to find good trout fishing opportunities, but it starts by using a thermometer and finding cold water.

When to wet wade

I wait for air temperatures above eighty degrees. That’s my mark. So if I know I’ll be on the water for a while with hard sun and temps above eighty, I usually break out the wet wading gear.

You’ll find your own mark though. Personally, I’d rather be a little too warm than too cold.

It’s also important to consider the temperature of the water. I sometimes fish a tailwater that releases at about fifty degrees in the summer. And no matter the heat of the air, I can’t tolerate that kind of cold on my lower body for long, so I just wear waders with the tops rolled down.


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Alright, let’s do this. Here are the elements of a good wet wading system. (And here’s a bonus — comfortable wet wading is cheap.)

Neoprene Wading Socks

This is the only thing you really need to spend money on. Neoprene wet wading socks (guard socks) are about $20-40, and they are pure gold. These neoprene socks take up the space in your wading boots. Normally, the booties on your waders do that. The neoprene also serves to keep your feet protected and comfortable.

The socks have built-in gravel guards that fold down and keep sand and pebbles out of your boots. That’s nice, huh?

Honestly, I avoided buying these for too many years. I wore extra-thick wool socks to take up the space in my wading boots. I used insoles and other things. And it all added up to being heavy and uncomfortable. Spend a few bucks here and love your life.

Buy Hodgman Neoprene Guard Wading Sock Here


Buy Simms Guide Guard Socks Here


Both of these wading socks are 3.5 mm neoprene. That’s important, because the booties in your waders are likely 3.5 mm too (or thicker). Some guard socks out there are only 2.5 mm, and they don’t take up space in your boots the same way or provide as much cushion.


YOUR Boots

The neoprene wading socks allow you wear your regular wading boots, and that’s a good thing. I’m a little nuts about good river traction, and I want boots with studs that I walk in day after day. I want the foot and ankle support of my own familiar, solid wading boots.

I wore my buddy’s wading sandals once, and oh my it was terrible. Small rocks and sand constantly slipped between the bottom of my foot and the sandals, the traction was bad and unfamiliar, and the open nature of the sandals left my foot unprotected. I had to change the way I waded and therefore the way I fished. Did not like.

I know guys who give a hearty thumbs up to some of the new(ish) wading boots on the market designed specifically for wet wading. Most have a neoprene liner inside of a light-framed boot. If that sounds good to you and you like spending money on fishing gear, try the boots on first, get a good fit, and you might be happy.

I’m a big fan of Simms Freestones. I’ve owned many pairs of these through the years. The build is super-solid, and the foot support is excellent.

Buy Simms Freestone Wading Boots Here


Buy Simms Freestone Wading Boots Here


Regular Socks

Some guys slide their bare feet right into the neoprene wet wading socks and roll with it. For me, that results in a chafed foot at the end of the day. I strongly prefer using a regular sock underneath the neoprene wading socks. You could buy a polypropylene liner sock, but I just use my regular mid-weight hiking socks from Darn Tough (a great company from Vermont).

Of course, both pairs of socks get wet and must be dried out after fishing. Big deal.

Hiking socks under the neoprene wading socks. I like it.

These Darn Tough brand hiking socks have a lifetime warranty. (That’s kind of amazing). The socks are just about the best thing I’ve ever slid on my feet. I wear them all year long for fishing and about eight months out of the year for everything else too.

Buy Darn Tough Medium Cushion Boot Socks Here



Wear a light, polyester blend, moisture-wicking underwear.

For a while, I didn’t think this mattered much. I just wore my regular Hanes boxer briefs and dealt with the consequences. What are those consequences?

Cotton underwear takes a long time to dry out. So once you wade up to your waist, you’ll likely be wet down there for the rest of the day. At best it’s mildly annoying, and at worst, your body might rebel with more chafing and a rash.

Wading above your man parts is already shocking enough, so take care of yourself, dude. (I don’t know about lady parts, so girls, ask around.)

Sharing this is weird, but here’s the underwear I like for wet wading

Buy Under Armour Mens Tech Boxerjock Here


Lightweight, quick drying pants are the key. You want pants that don’t hold water, so they aren’t heavy while wading or walking the trail. (Basically, the opposite of jeans.)

I’m also not a fan of shorts for wet wading. They really don’t keep you any cooler while in the water. And bare legs on the trout streams I fish are not a good idea. I like having some protection against jagger bushes, stinging nettles, ticks and other insects. I wore shorts to wet wade once. Literally, just once. And like the sandals, the shorts left me unprotected.

Go with long, but light pants. These are my favorite:

Buy Columbia Silver Ridge Convertible Pants Here


Simms, Orvis and Redington all make some nice, light, wet wading style pants as well. Although I find their sizing to be limited, they may be just right for you.


These last couple things in a wet wading system are less obvious.

On the hottest days, I often dunk my ball cap in the river and put it back on. The cold water cools my head and runs down my back while evaporating. Good stuff. I like to do the same thing with a sun gaiter or buff.

Just as important to me is the thin knit cap that I take along. Why the winter hat for the summer? On hot summer days the weather can change quickly. Just yesterday, a powerful thunderstorm cooled our hottest day of the year into the mid-sixties with cold rain and a cutting wind. I was at least a mile from the truck, deep into a great day of fishing when the thunderstorm passed through. And I was thankful for the knit cap. It helped hold in some heat when that suddenly became a priority.

Long Sleeves

Here I’m not talking about long sleeved, quick drying shirts designed for sun protection — although, they’re a great choice and far better than applying sun block.

But like the knit hat, I often carry a light, long sleeved fleece in my pack when I know I’ll be wet wading far from the truck. We think of wet wading as an effort to stay cool, but it’s easy to get too cold when the weather changes. Many days, I’ve been thankful for long sleeves after the sun went down, and I stayed comfortable well into the dark hours.

Likewise, if I’m starting at dawn, I know that without an extra layer on top, I’ll be way too cold for the first couple hours before the sun crests the mountain. I often start by wearing the light fleece shirt and stowing it away around mid-morning.

No Fear

I’m still surprised by the number of anglers I find who are opposed to wet wading. They fear waterborne pathogens and incurable diseases. Inevitably, they have secondhand stories about staph infections and antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Fair enough. I’ll concede that wet wading with an open leg wound may be unwise. And for anyone dead-set on the dangers of wet wading, I respect your decision.

But I grew up jumping in creeks and ponds whenever I could, and I guess I don’t have a fear of what might be in the water.

I wet wade because it keeps me fishing all summer long. And just like winter angling, there are ways to beat the elements, to stay comfortable and keep the rod bent.

Fish hard, friends.


Enjoy the day.
Domenick Swentosky



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Domenick Swentosky

Central Pennsylvania

Hi. I’m a father of two young boys, a husband, author, fly fishing guide and a musician. I fish for wild brown trout in the cool limestone waters of Central Pennsylvania year round. This is my home, and I love it. Friends. Family. And the river.

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  1. Was tired of the old wool sock deal myself and surprisingly found neoprene wading socks at Dicks for 20 bucks, just a heads up for anyone else looking for a cheap pair. They work fine and dandy, and have a gravel guard clip as well.

  2. Love this article. Been wet wading for years and do the same thing socks under the seal skins,,,,,, and I totally agree 65• cut off.

  3. I don’t think I’ve ever used the word ‘apropos’ in a sentence before, but as I opened your article I realized it’s actually 95 degrees down in Caribou at the moment. Very appropriate reading material, thanks. Unfortunately none of us up are used to anything like this and we’re all in a stupor; so much for fishing…

  4. Dom, when the weather and the water are tolerable I skip all the fancy stuff and just go with a pair of jeans and sneakers. The jeans are because of the vegetation, often brambles and the sneakers because they are light and dry quickly. I look at it like this…The trout don’t know or even care what I am wearing, but I do. I wear what is comfortable and practical. I also wear a long sleeved shirt because of the bugs…black flies and mosquitoes can ruin a fishing trip in a hurry. 🙂

  5. In Australia I wear women’s leggings with shorts over. Socks (I’m going to try neoprene) and wading boots. Then knee high leather gaiters – in case I step on a snake – a serious risk.

  6. I also went wet wading in shorts once- and picked somewhere around 30 tick bites, but fortunately the fishing was great that day. I was was wondering if anybody else has trouble with their neoprene socks filling up and becoming so heavy that hiking becomes really cumbersome. Ive considered popping a few holes in each foot so they can drain when I’m not in the water- is this a common issue? Thx -Mike

    • Hi Mike. I had a pair like that before. I took a nail, heated it up and stuck it through the arch of the sock in a couple places to make drain holes. Worked very well.

  7. Thanks, well timed for us in the UK with temps hitting the low 30’s (90F)recently.
    I’ve never wet waded, mainly due to the brush I need to hack through on my streams but after reading this I can find a solution.
    The waders “only breathable underwater” thing is messing with my head though!
    I don’t get how that works and seems against the laws of physics unless it’s following a temperature gradient?

  8. I always wet wade in the summer here in NZ and it is quick dry shorts and singlet with grippy boots, no socks. I always carry thermal leggings and top plus beanie for if it cools down. Fortunately we don’t have ticks. The hat regularly gets dunked in the water to cool the head down and if really hot it’s a swim in the river. I don’t worry too much about the bushes and scratches.

  9. Living in Texas, I wade wet a lot. Your article is a fabulous overview of the art of freeing oneself from waders.

    Two tips from my experience:

    1. I’ve found it much easier to pull neoprene socks over regular socks if both are wet. In fact, also wet my boots, which makes putting my socked feet (or wadered feet in the winter) into them much less snaggy.

    2. I dispense with underwear. There are many advantages to this strategy.


  10. I’ve started wearing shin guards a couple of seasons ago. Wearing shin guards allows a stealthy approach to shallow pools.

  11. been wet wading since I was a young kid ,I am 56 now and I still enjoy wet wading streams in Montana when the temp rises .

  12. SIMMS intruder boots are made specifically for wet wading. They have a built in neoprene gator and are designed to wear without socks. I love them, they are light weight and very comfortable. I have never seen them on sale, $175.00 at most fly shops.

    • Right on, Tom. I linked to those Intruder boots above. They aren’t my thing, but I can see how they’d be a great solution for some guys. I need more support than any light boot ever provides because I spend long days, day after day. Also, I like predictable traction, meaning I wear the same boots every day. So I like using my daily boots when I wet wade.


  13. Great article, packed with great advice. The neoprene wading socks sound like the bomb. You rock.

    • Cheers.

  14. I love a pair of Wader Gaiters from TenkaraBum for small water where you need some knee protection when getting stealthy. Also, great protection for pants or waders in general when hiking around brushy areas.

  15. Yes to all of this. I also add a pair of light long johns under pants like the ones you suggest. Wet nylon pants on their own offer zero protection from stinging nettles and the extra layer adds just a touch of warmth in cold water and wicks moisture away from your skin. Tight lines!!

    • Hmmm. Your pants must be different than mine. Even wet, my pants offer a great deal of protection against stinging nettles, briers and other such things.



      • Must be a very a lightweight pant, I don’t have that issue with either pair I use and there are a ton of nettles where I fish.

  16. I second dispensing with underwear. It’s just another layer to get wet, and takes you longer to dry out once you are out of the water.

  17. Great article. I’m a big fan of wet wading, hate wearing waders. Also a gear junkie. Love my stuff!! I have. A pair of Simms wading shoes that have a thin layer of felt in the center of the sole. I just wear a normal ankle sock under I also prefer Redington pants. Always long Thanks for a well written article

  18. Dom,

    Could you tell me how Simms Freestone boots are sized? Is the guide on the Simms site correct? What size relative to your regular shoe size do you use?


    • I wear a 9.5 shoe. And Simms 10’s are just about right. Sometimes I put a foam insole in there.

  19. Wet wadding is the way to go here in southern wyoming, until it gets cold…colder!!!!. Doing the Huckleberry Finn thing is/was a right of passage for me and my kids. Scratches and bumps are all part of playing outdoors. BUT, when the sworms and clouds of blood sucking, ear plugging mosquitoes come out quick drying long sleeve shirts and long pants are called for. You can dope up initally before hitting the water. But shutting down for the evening by the truck in a cloud of bloodsuckers. The dope is washed off and your miserable.

  20. Frogtoggs neoprene wading socks 12.99 FishUSA.

  21. Dominick. I like your article but . I don’t want to get my feet wet while wading. Too many contaminants, sewer etc in the water. Any suggestions to keep my feet dry?

    • Honestly, no. Being wet is really the point of wet wading, I guess.



  22. My absolute favorite pants for scrambling around in unforgiving canyons in Colorado are the Prana Stretch Zions. Quick drying and damn near indestructible. I own 4 pairs and they take the abuse. Cheers.


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Domenick Swentosky

Central Pennsylvania

Hi. I’m a father of two young boys, a husband, author, fly fishing guide and a musician. I fish for wild brown trout in the cool limestone waters of Central Pennsylvania year round. This is my home, and I love it. Friends. Family. And the river.

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